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Entomology

2005 Peter Teal ( Improving Efficacy )

Improving Efficacy of Sterile Insect Technique for Mexican Fruit Fly and Mediterranean Fruit Fly

During 2004-2005 our research focused on several areas. The first was testing a new gel- based diet developed to take the place of the agar sugar block diet used to feed adult Tephritid flies prior to sterile insect technique (SIT) releases. Unfortunately, the gel formulation was deficient in protein which resulted in production of adults that were not efficient in producing pheromone or attracting females (Figures 1, 2). Formulation of the gel diet with additional protein, needed to improve reproductive competence, yielded an inconsistent formulation. Additionally, the gel diet was expensive and labor intensive to formulate. As such the gel diet was judged a poor substitute for the agar/sugar blocks.

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2005 Beth Grafton-Cardwell ( Efficacy trials )

San Joaquin Valley Insecticide Efficacy Trials for Citrus Pests

The purpose of this research program is to determine how insecticides can be used most effectively, with as little disruption of natural enemies as possible, as part of the citrus IPM program. Information derived from this project is used to update the UCIPM Pest Management Guidelines, produce Arthropod Management Test articles and help support registration of insecticides.

2005 Roger Vargas ( Evaluation of Fipronil….)

Evaluation of Fipronil in Male Annihilation and Ground Treatments for Control of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Oriental Fruit Fly and Melon Fly

Economically important fruit flies in the family Tephritidae are among the most serious agricultural pests throughout the Pacific region. Conventional fruit fly area-wide control methods such as bait spray, male annihilation and ground area-wide treatments rely heavily on organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Continued registration of many OP insecticides for use in the U. S. is in doubt.

2005 Headrick/Grafton-Cardwell (Field Management Plan and Biocontrol Rearing System for Citrus Peelminer)

Field Management Plan and Biocontrol Rearing System for Citrus Peelminer

Objective 1 – Development of a pheromone-based monitoring system. Valley-wide trap deployment in the San Joaquin Valley took place from February to October with new lures developed by Dr. Jocelyn Millar, UC/Riverside. Fifty-one commercial orchards, 9 citrus/other hosts sites, plus 4 pummelo sites were utilized in the study. The trap data were inconclusive this year – there was about 1 flight per month, with adjacent crops having a large effect on subsequent citrus infestations.

2005 Raymond L Hix (Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Impact on Orange Yield, Fruit Size, and Quality)

Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Impact on Orange Yield, Fruit Size, and Quality

Prior to this study, it was unknown what impact the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata, had on orange yield, size, and quality as well as tree vigor. The goals of this project were to determine the usefulness of management of GWSS to prevent yield loss, fruit size reduction, and degraded fruit quality. This information is paramount before we can even begin to incorporate these into conventional IPM programs. First we needed to know what if any, impact GWSS has on citrus. Secondly we needed to know how to use the currently available materials against the GWSS in IPM programs to prevent potential losses without disrupting citrus IPM programs. Prior to this study, efforts to manage GWSS in California citrus were primarily to suppress populations to limit the spread of Xylella fastidiosa in areawide management programs.

2005 R. Stouthamer/R. Luck (Reducing the Negative Impact of Bacterial Infections)

Reducing the Negative Impact of Bacterial Infections in Aphytis melinus

About 70% of all insect species are infected with Wolbachia, a bacterium. Aphytis is no exception. Some Wolbachia infections can be beneficial such as those causing their hosts to produce female offspring exclusively, while others can be negative such as those that affect the efficacy of biological control.

2005 Jocelyn Millar (Development of Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Citrus Leafminer)

Development of Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Citrus Leafminer

The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is a problem for growers in most of regions of the world where citrus is grown (Heppner 1998). Grapefruit, tangerine, and pummelo are among the most susceptible hosts, but the leafminer can attack all varieties of citrus and some related plant species (Legaspi and French 2003).

2005 David Haviland ( Survey for Woolly Whitefly in Kern County )

Survey for Woolly Whitefly in Kern County

Woolly whitefly is an established pest of citrus in southern and coastal citrus production regions of California. In those areas, it is naturally suppressed below economically damaging levels by parasitic wasps. Woolly whitefly has recently been introduced into the southern San Joaquin Valley in residential areas in northeast Bakersfield, Kern County. It appears, however, to have become introduced without the parasitic wasps known to control it in other portions of the state. As a result, woolly whitefly is quickly becoming established and spreading throughout urban areas of Bakersfield, and if left unabated has the potential to move into citrus production regions of Kern and neighboring counties.

2005 Joseph Morse ( Management of Bean Thrips)

Management of Bean Thrips Joseph Morse

Bean thrips are an economic problem for California citrus growers only because adults will overwinter in the navel of navel oranges and may be detected in Australia where they are considered a quarantine pest resulting in the entire load being fumigated with methyl bromide. In addition to the cost and fruit damage from such treatments, Australia has indicated that unless progress is made in reducing finds, more severe penalties may result. It is possible that other countries may eventually consider bean thrips a quarantine risk.

2005 Joseph Morse ( Management of Citrus Thrips)

Management of Citrus Thrips

Citrus thrips populations vary from year to year and require that growers and pest control advisors monitor carefully and apply treatments on an as- needed basis. A number of natural enemies (e.g., Euseius tularensis, spiders, lacewings) assist in reducing citrus thrips numbers, but in some years citrus thrips levels exceed treatment thresholds and lead to economic fruit scarring unless corrective measures are applied.